3.3.1. GP to HS-FS Migration Guide Overview

The Processor SDK now supports HS-FS (High Security - Field Securable) device types. This migration guide targets customers who have AM62x GP devices and need to migrate to AM62x HS-FS devices. The Processor SDK will include build instruction updates for k3-image-gen, ti-u-boot, and ti-linux sources.

The Processor SDK will include support for HS-FS, HS-SE, and GP variants. The default device targeted in the Processor SDK is of HS-FS type.


Images in the Processor SDK will by default boot on HS-FS devices. To boot on GP devices, use ‘tiboot3-am62x-gp-evm.bin’ found in the Processor SDK. If using SD/MMC boot and having flashed a .wic image (WIC file) to an SD card, ‘tiboot3-am62x-gp-evm.bin’ should be found in the boot partition of the SD card. Renaming/removing the pre-existing tiboot3.bin and renaming ‘tiboot3-am62x-gp-evm.bin’ to tiboot3.bin is the only change needed to boot the HS-FS device. Device types


General Purpose: This is a SoC/board state where there is no devie protection and authentication is not enabled for booting the device.


High Security - Field Securable: This is a SoC/board state before a customer has blown the keys in the device. i.e. the state at which HS device leaves TI factory. In this state, the device protects the ROM code, TI keys and certain security peripherals. In this state, device do not force authentication for booting, however DMSC is locked.


High Security - Security Enforced: This is a SoC/board state after a customer has successfully blown the keys and set “customer Keys enable”. In HS-SE device all security features enabled. All secrets within the device are fully protected and all of the security goals are fully enforced. The device also enforces secure booting.

To identify a device type the following method could be used:

  • Connect to UART terminal (main domain)

  • Change boot pin settings to UART boot mode (Refer to TRM for boot mode switch settings)

  • Turn on the device and watch the terminal for a string that looks like the one below:



Do not copy the CCCC characters at the end of the string.

  • Save the string into a <file-name>.txt file

  • Download the uart-parser here

  • Execute the uart-parser on PC as follows:

$ python parse_uart_boot_socid.py <file-name.txt>

The string will print to log like the following output:

SoC ID Header Info:
NumBlocks            : [2]
SoC ID Public ROM Info:
SubBlockId           : 1
SubBlockSize         : 26
DeviceName           : am64x
DeviceType           : HSFS
DMSC ROM Version     : [0, 2, 0, 0]
R5 ROM Version       : [0, 2, 0, 0]
SoC ID Secure ROM Info:
Sec SubBlockId       : 2
Sec SubBlockSize     : 166
Sec Prime            : 0
Sec Key Revision     : 0
Sec Key Count        : 0
Sec TI MPK Hash      : b018658ad99dc903c8c9bfb27b12751099920a042ad1dfea7b7ba57369f15546de285edde6a7b39a8bdc40a27b237f8fb1e57f245e80b929c1e28b024aa2ecc6
Sec Cust MPK Hash    : ad0bc40b000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
Sec Unique ID        : a6bbeab017b04e54d30c26460c175bc03e734507db2b8a206af12f3e38de6e47

DeviceType will show whether an soc is GP, HS-FS, or HS-SE under DeviceName. ROM version will show whether an SOC is SR1.0 with [0,1,0,0] or SR2.0 with [0,2,0,0], Processor SDK

The boot images necessary to boot AM62x family devices are described here: Target Images. Of those, the initial boot image that ROM loads is tiboot3.bin. The AM62x Processor SDK will include up to three versions of the tiboot3.bin initial boot image. This is due to tiboot3.bin packaging TI firmware. TI firmware is different for every AM62x device type and one firmware for one device type may not work on another AM62x device type. Use the tiboot3.bin version according to the target device type.

Device Type

Initial boot image name


tiboot3-am62x-hs-fs-evm.bin (default)



AM62x GP


A common way to boot a board is with a bootable SD card, so it is assumed this is the method used. In the pre-built SDK, a bootable SD card image (WIC file) can be found in <path-to-tisdk>/filesystem/am62xx-evm directory which can then be flashed onto an SD card. During boot, ROM will load the initial boot binary (found in the SD card boot partition) named tiboot3.bin. By default this binary will be the HS-FS version.

The bootable SD card image will also have ‘tiboot3-am62x-gp-evm.bin’ in the boot partition of the SD card image. Renaming ‘tiboot3-am62x-gp-evm.bin’ to tiboot3.bin and removing/renaming the pre-existing tiboot3.bin of HS-FS type is the only change needed to run the HS-FS SDK on a GP board. K3-image-gen

K3-image-gen is no longer used in 9.0 SDK. Binman is now used instead to package images in u-boot source. For more information please look at <path-to-tisdk>/board-support/ti-u-boot/tools/binman/README.rst. To understand how binman is packaging individual images, look at <path-to-tisdk>/board-support/ti-u-boot/arch/arm/dts/k3-<device-family>-sk-binman.dtsi. U-Boot

U-Boot will now use the same defconfig for both HS and non-HS device types. All devices are assumed to be secure and the default <family>_evm_{r5,a53}_defconfig will be used to build all device types.

If U-boot is built, the filenames of the generated images tispl.bin and u-boot.img are in the following format:

  • Signed: tispl.bin

  • Unsigned: tispl.bin_unsigned

Unsigned images will boot on GP and HS-FS devices but not on HS-SE devices.

On HS-SE device, unsigned images may cause no prints to be displayed on the console or we may see “Authentication failed” warnings and the device will fail to boot as seen below:

U-Boot SPL 2021.01 (Aug 18 2022 - 15:15:21 -0500)
EEPROM not available at 80, trying to read at 81
SYSFW ABI: 3.1 (firmware rev 0x0008 '8.4.4-v08.04.04 (Jolly Jellyfi')
SPL initial stack usage: 13424 bytes
Trying to boot from MMC2
ti_sci system-controller@44043000: Message not acknowledgedAuthentication failed!
### ERROR ### Please RESET the board ###

On HS-FS device, unsigned images will boot but we will see a “Skipping authentication” warning in the console ouput as seen below:

U-Boot SPL 2021.01 (Aug 18 2022 - 15:25:41 -0500)
EEPROM not available at 80, trying to read at 81
SYSFW ABI: 3.1 (firmware rev 0x0008 '8.4.4-v08.04.04 (Jolly Jellyfi')
SPL initial stack usage: 13424 bytes
Trying to boot from MMC2
Warning: Did not detect image signing certificate. Skipping authentication to prevent boot failure. This will fail on Security Enforcing(HS-SE) devices

Signed images will boot on all devices including GP device as can be seen on the ouput below:

U-Boot SPL 2021.01 (Aug 18 2022 - 15:29:01 -0500)
EEPROM not available at 80, trying to read at 81
SYSFW ABI: 3.1 (firmware rev 0x0008 '8.4.4--v08.04.04 (Jolly Jellyfi')
SPL initial stack usage: 13424 bytes
Trying to boot from MMC2
Warning: Detected image signing certificate on GP device. Skipping certificate to prevent boot failure. This will fail if the image was also encrypted Linux Kernel

By default U-boot expects to boot FIT image (Flattened Image Tree) named fitImage and falls back to booting kernel Image, DTB, and DTBO’s found in root/boot/dtb/ti of the SD card if using MMCSD Boot (SD Card Boot).

The exception is for HS-SE (High Security - Security Enforced) devices where only fitImage will boot. Booting with fitImage is not required for GP/HS-FS devices, but is recommended since it implements higher security. The U-boot environment variable FIT_SIGNATURE_ENFORCE can be used to enforce authentication on GP/HS-FS devices if booting fitImage.

To generate the fitImage, the instructions are documented here: Creating the kernel fitImage for high security device / GP devices, where the keys to sign the fitImage can be generated using openssl and the mkimage command (if able to find fitImage.its, keys, and dt.dtb) will generate fitImage.

To enable loading the FIT image, the u-boot environment variable boot_fit could be set to 1 in u-boot:

=> setenv boot_fit 1
=> boot