# 6.4.1. U-Boot Board Port¶

## 6.4.1.1. Overview¶

SPL and U-Boot share a common code base. When adding a custom board to U-Boot it is recommended to start out with a TI EVM that resembles the custom hardware design in some capacity, for example in the areas of DDR (type and size of memory), MMC (which module is used, is there an eMMC connected or is an SD card being used), network setup (type and number of PHYs connected), and UART setup (which UART is intended to be used for console purposes?). For the purposes of this How-To document we refer to that EVM as the “originating TI EVM”.

For custom AM437x boards, many base their design off the AM437x General-Purpose EVM or the AM437x Starter Kit. For this discussion here we will be assuming the AM437x General-Purpose EVM to be our starting point however the same concepts also apply doing board ports starting off a different base platform. The new board will get integrated cleanly it in a way like other existing boards are integrated into U-Boot.

## 6.4.1.2. Integrating support for a new board into the U-Boot tree¶

Adding support is done by essentially cloning, stripping down, and flattening the TI EVM board support while integrating the resulting files into the U-Boot build flow, resulting in a custom defconfig, a custom board-specific header file, a custom top-level device tree file advertising the new board name, and a custom set of board files for platform setup such as DDR and pinmux. Once such flattened baseline has been established and has been verified to build successfully and run on the originating platform, the next step is then to perform the actual customization work.

### 6.4.1.2.1. Creating an initial baseline by cloning and flattening TI EVM support¶

The steps include various placeholders that need to be substituted during the board port process as follows:

Placeholder Usage
<MYBOARD> Name identifying your custom board in upper-case letters. It will be used as a name for a new U-Boot CONFIG symbol associated with your board allowing to customize various build and runtime aspects.
<myboard> Name identifying your custom board in lower-case letters. Used to establish the custom board platform files in the U-Boot source tree hierarchy and as part of board-specific file names, amongst other things.
<mycompany> Name of your company. Used to establish a folder in the U-Boot source tree hierarchy containing the board-specific files for <myboard> as part of the board port.

Steps to create an intitial baseline:

1. Establish a custom-board specific CONFIG option that can be used to identify the custom hardware and direct code and build flow accordingly

• Clone the entire config TARGET_AM43XX_EVM section located in arch/arm/mach-omap2/am33xx/Kconfig into a new section called config TARGET_AM43XX_<MYBOARD>
• Update the config TARGET_AM43XX_<MYBOARD> option description in the newly cloned section from bool "Support am43xx_evm" to bool "Support am43xx_<myboard>"
• Similarly, update the help description of the newly cloned section to reflect that it is for a custom board
• Remove the select TI_I2C_BOARD_DETECT entry from the new section. In most cases we do not need or want this feature for custom boards as we will be tailoring the solution around our specific platform so let’s remove it right away.
• Add source "board/<mycompany>/<myboard>/Kconfig" to section containing source locations located in arch/arm/mach-omap2/Kconfig
2. Copy and update board files to a new folder

• Copy all files from board/ti/am43xx/ to a new folder called board/<mycompany>/<myboard>

• Remove (or update) the README and MAINTAINERS files (if they exist) as needed

• Remove #include "../common/board_detect.h" from board.c

• Remove code enclosed between #ifdef TI_I2C_BOARD_DETECT and #endif from board.c

• Rework and remove all board-detection related code in board.c, board.h, and mux.c, only keeping and flattening the pieces needed to support the actual platform the custom board is based on. The original board.c, board.h, and mux.c files are written such that they support a multitude of different boards as well as different revisions of a given board, all with their own board- specific set of features including but not limited to DDR configuration, pinmux, device operating points/speeds, and other peripheral initialization code. Do the rework by following the code path that is executed as a result of various board_is_*() function calls. For example, to flatten the platform code and tailor it to the currently shipping revision of AM437x GP EVM hardware, assume board_is_evm() to evaluate as true, and all other board_is_*() functions as false, and simplify the platform code accordingly.

• Edit board/<mycompany>/<myboard>/Kconfig as follows

• Update if TARGET_AM43XX_EVM to if TARGET_AM43XX_<MYBOARD>
• Update default "am43xx" to default "<myboard>" under config SYS_BOARD
• Update default "ti" to default "<mycompany>" under config SYS_VENDOR
• Update default "am43xx_evm" to default "am43xx_<myboard>" under config SYS_CONFIG_NAME
3. Copy and update board-specific header file

• Copy include/configs/am43xx_evm.h to a new file include/configs/am43xx_<myboard>.h
• Remove the #define CONFIG_ENV_EEPROM_IS_ON_I2C, #define CONFIG_SYS_I2C_EEPROM_ADDR, #define CONFIG_SYS_I2C_EEPROM_ADDR_LEN definitions as we usually do not want to use an external EEPROM for configuration storage, but instead want to use the boot media.
• Update the findfdt U-Boot environmental variable definition made via CONFIG_EXTRA_ENV_SETTINGS to hard-code board-specific DTB file used to boot the Linux Kernel "findfdt=setenv fdtfile am437x-<myboard>.dtb\0"
• Remember that when trying to boot your system with this configuration, you must provide a Kernel DTB file named am437x-<myboard>.dtb in this case. Not providing this file may lead to a silent failure during ENV-based U-Boot loading and the Kernel not coming up
4. Copy and update top-level device tree file and integrate into build process

• Copy arch/arm/dts/am437x-gp-evm.dts to arch/arm/dts/am437x-<myboard>.dts
• Edit arch/arm/dts/am437x-<myboard>.dts and update model node with a custom, board-specific string
• Edit arch/arm/dts/am437x-<myboard>.dts to include contents from the implicitly included am437x-gp-evm-u-boot.dtsi file.

Note

Many TI boards also come with a U-Boot specific device tree include file with the same base name as the main device tree file but ending in -u-boot.dtsi which gets implicitly included by U-Boot’s device tree build process. For example in case of arch/arm/dts/am437x-gp-evm.dts the file that is included implicitly is called arch/arm/dts/am437x-gp-evm-u-boot.dtsi. It is recommended to simply take the contents from such an include file and add it to the main device tree file of a board, providing a bit more simplified and easier to manage view of the active configuration.

• Edit arch/arm/dts/Makefile to add am437x-<myboard>.dtb to the dtb-\$(CONFIG_AM43XX) build target
5. Copy and update U-Boot defconfig file

• Copy configs/am43xx_evm_defconfig to configs/am43xx_<myboard>_defconfig

• Edit configs/am43xx_<myboard>_defconfig as follows
• Add CONFIG_TARGET_AM43XX_<MYBOARD>=y right below CONFIG_AM43XX=y
• Update CONFIG_DEFAULT_DEVICE_TREE="am437x-<myboard>"
• Remove entry for CONFIG_OF_LIST

At this point the initial baseline is complete and we should have a custom board that will run on the platform the board port was based on (TI EVM). Now to complete this step, do the following:

1. Build our custom board port using the usual flow of first building the newly created defconfig file, and then performing the actual build of SPL and U-Boot. Fix any build errors you may encounter and re-build until the build performs cleanly, without any build warnings. Ensure that the toolchain path has been set properly.

make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE='arm-linux-gnueabihf-' mrproper
make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE='arm-linux-gnueabihf-' <device>_<myboard>_defconfig
make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE='arm-linux-gnueabihf-'

2. Check in the newly added files into Git to establish a known-good checkpoint

### 6.4.1.2.2. Customizing the newly-established baseline to support actual target platform¶

As a next step we want to create a minimal configuration that can be used for an initial attempt at bringing up the board. Once the basics are working it will become a good base to build on setup step by step to fully support all desired features of a custom board. Note that the chances of getting everything right in the first attempts are rather low, so typically an iterative approach is taken, comprising making changes, make sure they build, checking them into the Git source tree (so changes can be traced, understood, and reverted if needed more easily), and testing them on hardware, until the a fully working and functional board port has been achieved.

U-Boot uses the same code base to build images for SPL and U-Boot itself. As you work with the different source and header files take note of how certain statements are wrapped in #ifdef CONFIG_SPL ... #endif statement preprocessor macros, which means the included sections are only applicable and get build when SPL is being built. Similarly, when you encounter config symbols that start with CONFIG_SPL_* either in the Kconfig tool (meaning, make [...] menuconfig), in actual Kconfig files (in which case the leading CONFIG_ prefix is omitted) in the U-Boot tree, or in any of the source and Makefile files this means a certain feature or section is only activated or applicable to SPL.

Note

Use the search function in the Kconfig tool to quickly find various CONFIG_* options that are discussed below. The search can be activated by pressing the ‘/’ key.

• Port DDR configuration if your DDR setup (devices, clock speeds, etc.) differs from the originating platform (EVM)

• DDR timing and configuration data is setup in the board.c file
• Follow the steps outlined in the AM43xx EMIF Tools Application Report and its associated Configuration Tool in detail. This application report also includes information useful for DDR bringup.
• If any additional customization steps are needed such as the addition of extra definitions try to limit any changes you do to the files in your custom board-specific folder at board/<mycompany>/<myboard>
• When the DDR timings and parameters are setup correctly, U-Boot will automatically detect, verify, and configure the size of DDR during runtime in the architectural files by using get_ram_size().
• Establish an initial minimal pinmux setup for the custom board

• A minimal pinmux setup is needed to avoid any potential signal conflicts that may occur when running a configuration that was intended for a TI EVM that is simply run on a custom board

• Pinmux performed in U-Boot is usually limited to the peripherals that are directly involved in the boot process (such as GPMC, DDR, MMC, SPI, etc.), an I2C module used for PMIC connectivity, as well as the console UART

• For TI EVM-based defconfigs the pinmux is performed through the mux.c board file, which can be verified by the CONFIG_PINCTRL, CONFIG_PINCTRL_FULL, and CONFIG_PINCTRL_SINGLE options not being set in the .config file

• Update the enable_board_pin_mux() function with the pinmux settings needed for your custom board. For TI EVMs this file usually uses different board_is_*() functions to activate different pinmux settings for different boards however we should have already flattened that functionality earlier. Now we need to remove everything that is not applicable to our custom board, and add/update the items we need to achieve a minimal environment allowing to boot by making the appropriate configure_module_pin_mux() calls proving correct (possibly updated) data structures.

• In order to quickly derive the pinmux settings needed there are two possible paths:

1. Use the TI-provided Pin MUX Utility which is available in a version running in the cloud as well as a version that can be installed manually. Note that since the pinmux is performed via the mux.c board file one needs to convert and translate the pinmux settings shown in the Pin MUX Utility to what is expected by enable_board_pin_mux() by modeling and comparing with existing struct module_pin_mux definitions.
2. Search through and use struct module_pin_mux definitions from board files of other boards using the same SoC

Note

Any pinmux settings made in the device tree file are not applicable and not used by U-Boot. The reason those are there is that usually the U-Boot device tree file is a copy of the Linux device tree file as this simplifies keeping those in sync. This does not mean however that all entries such as pinmux are applicable to U-Boot.

• Update PMIC configuration

• TI AMxxx SoCs are typically supplied by an external Power Management IC (PMIC) connected via the I2C interface. One of the jobs of the PMIC is it to supply and provide the VDD_MPU and VDD_CORE voltages according to the desired Operating Performance Point (OPP) meeting datasheet requirements.
• The PMIC is being configured through the scale_vcores() function inside the board.c file which gets invoked by the architectural drivers prior to setting up the SoC’s PLLs.
• The actual PMIC configuration is made dependent on the clock frequency configured for a given board (see next step). It may also need to be made dependent on silicon revision, so review the originating TI EVM’s code carefully, which is mostly directed based on board_is_*() invocations
• Configure which PMIC driver to use by enabling the desired driver via #define CONFIG_POWER_* in the device specific header file include/configs/<myboard>.h.
• Only the driver for the PMIC that is actually used on the board should be enabled. For a list of available drivers try searching for appropriate CONFIG options as follows: git grep 'CONFIG_POWER_TPS' drivers/power/pmic.
• Update SoC clock configuration

• TI AMxxx SoCs are available in different speed grades, each supporting a maximum operating frequency, associated with a specific OPP.
• The implementation of the get_dpll_mpu_params() function inside the board.c file is responsible for determining the maximum allowable operating frequency, which is then used by the architecture drivers to set up the device’s PLLs.
• Do not attempt increase the device operating frequency beyond what is permissible via eFuse readout, however there may be cases where it is helpful to not operate at the highest OPP in which case this function can get updated to return a different struct dpll_params * object to accommodate this.
• Customize console UART settings

• The UART pinmus is done through set_uart_mux_conf() in board.c, calling a pinmux configuration function enable_uart*_pin_mux for a specific UART interface inside mux.c. Update the call as well as the enable_uart*_pin_mux function itself to use an updated pinmux structure as needed for the new UART interface.

• Update the arch/arm/dts/am437x-<myboard>.dts device tree file as follows:

• Update stdout-path propery with new phandle to new UART
• Overlay the respective UART’s device tree node with the correct pinmux reference and ensure it is set to status = "okay";
• Update the console= variable part of the CONFIG_EXTRA_ENV_SETTINGS definition in the board-specific header file include/configs/<myboard>.h to the desired UART to be used for Linux Kernel boot. Set this ENV variable to ttyS0,115200n8 for UART0, ttyS1,115200n8 for UART1, and so on.

• Setup early (debug) UART

• The main console UART is brought up only well into the SPL boot process due to driver and other dependencies, making it difficult to bring up and instrument early startup code including boot peripheral configuration, PMIC setup, DDR setup, board ID / EEPROM related code (which should have gotten removed by now, as per earlier steps), amongst other things without the ability to perform basic printf() style instrumentation.
• To make board port and bringup easier it is HIGHLY RECOMMENDED to turn on U-Boot’s debug UART functionality at least during development and bringup work, which is done by configuring and hard-coding various UART peripheral parameters. Doing so will enable the UART during early_system_init() execution early on in the SPL flow as part of SPL’s board_init_f() function.
• Usually the debug UART is configured to match the main console UART (e.g., both are configured to use UART0) for a single console output
• Note for debug UART functionality to work the set_uart_mux_conf() in board.c function must have gotten updated as per earlier steps to setup the pinmux needed for the debug UART
• To enable the debug UART functionality using the UART0 module configure the below parameters using the Kconfig tool. To use any other UART module adjust the CONFIG_DEBUG_UART_BASE parameter to the base address appropriate for that UART, which can be found in the TRM (peripheral memory map section) or simply taken from the device-specific device tree include file uart*: { } definitions.
CONFIG_DEBUG_UART_BASE=0x44e09000
CONFIG_DEBUG_UART_CLOCK=48000000
CONFIG_DEBUG_UART=y
CONFIG_DEBUG_UART_OMAP=y
CONFIG_DEBUG_UART_SHIFT=2
CONFIG_DEBUG_UART_ANNOUNCE=y


Note

The recommended setup for the early (debug) UART includes CONFIG_DEBUG_UART_ANNOUNCE=y which leads to the output of <debug_uart> very very early on in the SPL boot flow, before most/any of the SoC and peripheral configuration happens. Having this enabled is a good way to see an “early sign of life” of sorts during board bringup, giving one confidence that the very basics of the boot process are working which is the ROM boot loader loading SPL from the desired boot media and SPL starting to execute.

• Deactivate all peripheral initializations except for basic boot support like UART, MMC, etc. from the <device>-<myboard>.dts device tree file using one of the following methods:

1. Remove all device tree nodes that are not applicable, including their references such as clocks, power regulator, and pinmux settings
2. De-activate peripherals that are not needed by adding a status = "disabled"; property to their respective nodes
• De-activate possibly unnecessary functionality as needed through U-Boot menu configuration

• Establish a new working .config file by building the new defconfig file make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE='arm-linux-gnueabihf-' <device>_<myboard>_defconfig
• Perform U-Boot configuration by invoking the Kconfig tool via make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE='arm-linux-gnueabihf-' menuconfig. This will update the current working configuration file .config stored at the root of the U-Boot directory with any changes that are being performed
• Turn the current .config U-Boot configuration into an updated defconfig file by executing make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE='arm-linux-gnueabihf- savedefconfig. This will generate/update a file called defconfig.
• Copy the newly generated defconfig to configs/<device>_<myboard>_defconfig, effectively overwriting/updating the defconfig file established earlier when cloning the existing board we are basing the port on. Doing so will also allow us to see the changes that were introduced since since our earlier checkpoint commit via git diff.
• De-activate other possibly unnecessary functionality as needed through customizing the board-specific header file

• Some SPL and U-Boot features have not yet been fully migrated to Kconfig and are controlled/enabled through the board-specific header file include/configs/<myboard>.h created earlier
• Note that that board-specific header file may include additional header file(s) that activate and configure functionality. Make sure to understand the include hierarchy. To disable or re-configure certain features consider using a combination of #undef and #define pre-processor statements in your custom board-specific header file past where a common header file is included. This way any modifications to the shared U-Boot files can be avoided.
• U-Boot Environment

• The default U-Boot environment is to a large part defined through the CONFIG_EXTRA_ENV_SETTINGS definition in the board-specific header file include/configs/<myboard>.h and should be further tailored to specific system needs.

• Make any changes required to support the primary boot mode, such as configuring bootpart= in case of MMC/SD card boot to the correct partition

• While having extra definitions in the environment usually doesn’t hurt one should use this opportunity to remove any definitions related to boot modes that are not needed to yield a less cluttered and easier to understand overall U-Boot environment.

• Remove BOOT_TARGET_* definitions that are not applicable
• Remove DEFAULT_*_TI_ARGS definitions that are not applicable
• Remove *ARGS definitions that are not applicable
• Add an optargs= ENV definition to CONFIG_EXTRA_ENV_SETTINGS if you need any extra arguments passed to the Kernel during boot

• Use the Kconfig tool to disable all CONFIG_ENV_IS_IN_* definitions to essentially disable persistent ENV storage initially

With the customizations now made, the resulting SPL/U-Boot should no longer be run on the originating TI EVM, but instead on the custom hardware. We should now be able to attempt an initial boot of the custom hardware platform in the context of the hardware bringup of the new board. The goal should be to get to the U-Boot prompt.

### 6.4.1.2.3. Building out full support for target platform¶

Once we have reached U-Boot prompt we can then focus on (re-)adding any features to U-Boot we may need to more fully support our custom system, and then move to booting the Linux Kernel. It is recommended adding features one by one while using Git to track any changes and testing/validating features on actual hardware as they are added until all desired features have gotten added and integrated.

Customization steps can involved but are not limited to adding...

• Support for additional storage media
• Support for additional boot modes
• Support for network interface(s)
• Support for extra U-Boot commands (CONFIG_CMD_*) to help debugging or running the system

When adding features it is usually a good idea to analyze other boards already present in U-Boot that use the same TI SoC, and then port features over into our own board files, board specific header file, and defconfig.

To identify which other boards in U-Boot use the same SoC use the below command:

git grep CONFIG_AM43XX=y


It can also be helpful to inspect the most current upstream U-Boot tree for additional boards that may since have become available. However care must be taken when backporting code to the U-Boot part of the TI SDK to consider all required dependencies and changes that may have since affected a specific feature.

## 6.4.1.3. U-Boot Bringup Debugging Tips¶

Doing an U-Boot board port is usually an iterative process, involving some amount of debugging and troubleshooting, especially on a custom hardware platform that differs substantially from one of the TI EVMs. The following list gives some ideas that could be helpful during debugging and U-Boot bringup.

• The most efficient and powerful tool for board bringup is to have access to the SoC via JTAG debugger, and use a tool such as TI’s Code Composer Studio (CCS) to inspect the device and code.

• Use in conjunction with SPL (./spl/u-boot-spl) and U-Boot (./u-boot) ELF files for fully symbolic debug
• A very useful tool is using the CCS-specific AM43xx Debug Server Scripting package for low-level device state and boot analysis. Refer to the included README file for further information.
• Performing basic printf()-style debugging

• Use when JTAG is not available or not practical
• To maximize usefulness of this approach usually requires the early (debug) UART to be configured and activated (which will happen as part of SPL’s board_init_f()) as discussed earlier, as most of the critical low-level code on current TI EVMs is executed while the regular console UART is not yet available, in which case nothing would get printed during any failures relating to boot, PMIC setup, clock setup, DDR setup, and other critical stages, leading to “black screen” type of failures leaving no clue what to check.
• Many U-Boot modules (source files) already contain various forms of debug() print statements which can be activated on a per-module basis by adding a #define DEBUG to the top of the source file
• Beyond that, it can be helpful to add print statements throughout the boot flow to trace program execution. For example, the simple statement shown below can easily be replicated through copy and paste yet gives usually enough information to pinpoint a specific line of code:
printf("%s: %d:\n", __func__, __LINE__);

• Double-check final device tree file contents

Since the device tree file that gets built into U-Boot (and SPL, as it is in case of CONFIG_SPL_OF_CONTROL is used on a given platform) is created not just from the top level <device>-<myboard>.dts device tree source file but also from an entire hierachy of explicitly (and implicitly) included header files (and SPL-specific DTS properties like u-boot,dm-spl and u-boot,dm-pre-reloc) it is good to double-check what the actual final device tree blob looks like. The best way to do that is by de-compiling it back into source code, which in case of the SPL and U-Boot device trees can be done with the following commands:

dtc -I dtb spl/u-boot-spl.dtb
dtc -I dtb u-boot.dtb